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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2011)

Prediction of fresh-saline interface in the Shatt al Arab estuary using 3D modelling

Neamah, N.K.

Titre : Prediction of fresh-saline interface in the Shatt al Arab estuary using 3D modelling

Auteur : Neamah, N.K.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2011

Résumé
The Shatt Al Arab River is the main river in Iraq and it starts at Qurnah city at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates. The length of the river is about 191 km ; the Shatt Al Arab is joined by the Swaib canal about 10 km downstream from Qurnah city and by the Karun River which generates from the Iranian side about 90 km upstream from the estuary. Mohid modelling has been used in this study to compute the interface between fresh-saline water in the Shatt al Arab River which suffers from salinity because of the reduced discharge coming from upstream and the salt intrusion coming from the Arabian Gulf. The salinity intrusion is causing an agricultural disaster, unusable water supply and emigration of many people particularly from Faw city. The data used for this study has been collected from the Ministry of Water Resources in Iraq. The collected data comprised of meteorological, hydrological and measure geometry is from 1981 to 1989, which is considered to be quite old, from modelling purposes. Meteorological data has not been used in the model but helps in understanding the behaviour of the study area, therefore it is included in the report. The Mohid model was ran for 25 days, with different scenarios, depending on the freshwater releases from the Tigris and Euphrates in dry and wet periods. Two boundaries have been used in the model : upstream boundary conditions and open boundary conditions. The upstream boundary is a hydrograph for 25 days for the Tigris and Euphrates with different scenarios, and the open boundary condition depends on astronomic constituents. The initial value for salinity concentration which has been used is 6,910 ppm in the river as a minimum measurement and 16,000 ppm in the sea. The discharge in Al Kassara and Nissiriay cities, for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, respectively, is assumed to be the same as in Qurnah city without any losses, because Qurnah city is influenced by the tide and because of the lack of information about Al Kassara and Nissiriay cities. The salinity concentration in the Arabian Gulf is considered to be high at a level of 16,000 ppm ; however, the salinity concentration in the Tigris and Euphrates is assumed to be a minimum measured value. The results, after running the model, are mainly dependent on the release water discharge from the Tigris and Euphrates based on different scenarios and they show the full influence of the tide. However, the influence by the tide decreases when releasing higher discharge and increases when releasing low water.

Sujets  : estuaries salt water intrusion modelling Iraq

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Page publiée le 14 février 2020