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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2013)

Strategies and methods for apparent water loss management in developing countries : [a case study of Mozambique]

Chimene, C.A.

Titre : Strategies and methods for apparent water loss management in developing countries : [a case study of Mozambique]

Auteur : Chimene, C.A.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2013

Résumé
Water distribution systems in many countries have poor maintenance and performance. Indeed, Mozambique is not exception of this poor performance. The main causes of that are due to lack of manpower, infrastructures, equipments and financial constraints to address properly water loss management.Water loss in the distribution system is a common problem in worldwide. In developing countries the amount of WL is very high and differs from one country to another and city to city. In some countries WL can reach 50% or more. WL is divided into Real Loss and Apparent losses (AL). Many countries are attempting to reduce WL by analyzing and fixing real losses (physical loss) and neglecting or not addressing properly AL. However, AL can be reduced when its extent of components, as well as tools, strategies and methods to control are known.The main goal of this research was to develop strategies and methods for AWLM in developing countries. The research was carried out in two cities in Mozambique with different water distribution systems (Maxixe and Vilankulos).The methodology adopted in this research, included desk study, field studies, interview with stakeholders, data analysis and development of conceptual framework. The field study as well as interviews provided the information necessary to access the AWL data in case study cities and it was guidance for further steps (data analysis and development of conceptual framework) in AL reduction in the distribution system which could be used in developing countries. An assessment of water balance and water loss in the water distribution system of the case study cities were carried out and outlined. Furthermore, WL in Maxixe was 22.8% of SIV and in Vilankulos was 28.3% of SIV of which AL was identified in case study cities as 9.36% and 10.70% of SIV in Vilankulos and Maxixe respectively. Also, the main causes of AWL in the case study cities water distribution system cities were :(i) water meter inaccuracies, (ii) water theft and (iii) data transfer and billing error of these three components, the major cause of AL in case study cities were water meter errors followed by data handling and billing error. Moreover, in-situ measurement was used to check the metering accuracy with the same or different brand and same size in case study cities as well as data transfer and billing error on customer accounts survey.Short-term strategies for AWLM in case study cities (proposed for 5 years) are : water audit, illegal connection control and survey, social and staff awareness and consensus campaign, training of water meter readers and applicability of billing database.Long-term strategies for AWL reduction in case study cities proposed for 15 years were : DMAs establishment, universal metering/meter replacement policy, and development of computer programs based on AL control and customer database. It is expected that with the implementation of the proposed strategies, the apparent water losses in Maxixe and Vilankulos can be reduced to 4% by 2027.The conceptual strategic framework for AWLM in developing countries were developed and outlined which has four phases : (i) assessment of the current situation, (ii) organisation of institutional framework, (iii) AWLM activities, execution groups and target setting and implementation and finally, (iv) monitoring and evaluation phase. Some constraints in implementing the strategies in developing countries were identified. It is recommended that EMA and FIPAG should record all the information regarding the functionality of WDS so that, it can be used for further studies or plans.

Sujets  : water loss water distribution systems developing countries case studies Mozambique

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Page publiée le 10 février 2020