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Accueil du site → Master → Pays Bas → 2014 → Assessing the feasibility of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater during drought in the context of sustainable development - the case of the Lomati catchment

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2014)

Assessing the feasibility of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater during drought in the context of sustainable development - the case of the Lomati catchment

Bakhit, M.S.I.

Titre : Assessing the feasibility of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater during drought in the context of sustainable development - the case of the Lomati catchment

Auteur : Bakhit, M.S.I.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2014

Résumé partiel
In Sub-Saharan Africa, water scarcity issues have been raised due to the variability of rainfall and surface water, besides the increasing demands as a contributing factor. Moreover, development of groundwater has often been considered as separate activity from the major water management activities, which are mostly surface water centered. Several initiatives have called for integrated water resources management (IWRM), including groundwater resources, for effective and efficient water allocation based on social equity, economic growth, and environmental integrity. The Incomati basin is an example where groundwater management requires integration in the overall water management regime. In this situation, understanding of groundwater use, hydrology and chemistry is needed to improve water allocation mechanisms, especially during periods of shortages. In this research, efforts were made to contribute to this objective.The focus area is the Lomati catchment, a watershed within the Incomati basin.The study examines the possibility of using groundwater during drought, when surface water is not enough for meeting the users’ demand. The main approach was to analyze the water availability and demands during certain dry years and assess the contribution of groundwater in a conjunctive manner, and also to have a clear knowledge about the groundwater use and management practices in the catchment. A survey was conducted to estimate the current groundwater use. The total annual groundwater abstraction in the entire catchment was estimated around 1.2 million m3. About 3.6 % of this amount is used for domestic purposes and mainly in Swaziland, while the rest is used for irrigation in the South African territory. In addition, a lack of robust regulation and monitoring systems was found in the whole catchment, indicating less progress towards sustainable management. The second part of the methodology depends mainly on simulated data and models for determining the user deficits during drought. Constructed natural flow data from WRSM and ACRU models were evaluated using certain model performance indicators to check for the representation of river flow under natural conditions. The results showed that no source can be distinguished as the best natural flow data for the Lomati catchment. Therefore, both data from WRSM and ACRU models were used.

Sujets  : groundwater surface water drought sustainable development water availability case studies catchment areas Sub-Saharan Africa

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