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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2014)

Hydrological (SWAT) modeling for optimum irrigation demand assessment in the Upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia

Gebremedhin, H.G.

Titre : Hydrological (SWAT) modeling for optimum irrigation demand assessment in the Upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia

Auteur : Gebremedhin, H.G.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2014

Résumé partiel
Decisions on water resources management have to be made based on accurate information. However, water resources development is often carried out without properly knowing the amount and spatial and temporal distribution of the available water in most of the developing countries including Ethiopia, causing only not ineffective and inefficient water use but also causes conflict and environmental effects. Processes based hydrological modelling tools like SWAT, are capable of simulating an extensive water balance study scenarios that includes water supply and demand for all water use sectors. It is based on statistical and spatial datasets from different sources including land use, soil, weather/climatic data and all that information will be brought together in a spatial database on the basis of which the different analyses will be carried out. The Awash River basin is the most utilized river basin system in Ethiopia both in terms of agricultural, industrial and domestic water utilities. Despite of the huge investment in irrigation agriculture in the basin and the Upper Awash valley in particular, little attention is given to sustainable and effective land and water resource planning and management activities. Therefore the paper deals with the capability of hydrologic cycle models for the successful simulation of the hydrologic cycle and optimum irrigation water demand assessment in large irrigated watersheds. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and CROPWAT program has been used to simulate and compute optimum irrigation water demand for 5 (five) selected large scale irrigation schemes in the Upper Awash valley. Detail analysis of the calibrated SWAT model prediction performance for daily stream flow and the irrigation requirement output clearly indicates that, a systematic consideration of the irrigation management operation scheduling is required to simulate the hydrologic cycle and optimum irrigation water demand in a large irrigated watershed such asthe Upper Awash valley. However, this will be further complicated when irrigation management operations are scheduled manually to irrigate different agricultural fields located in different HRUs with the same source of irrigation water diverted from the main channel with a single diversion off take or different off takes located in the stream network. Scenario simulations have been conducted to investigate the capability of SWAT model to predict optimum irrigation water demand in the Upper Awash valley. SWAT simulated scenarios include manual irrigation operation scheduling with stream diversion from themain stream network (Awash river), unlimited watersource (KOKA reservoir) and scheme crop water requirement analysis (CROPWAT approach).

Sujets  : irrigated agriculture irrigation management water resources management hydrological modelling Ethiopia

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