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Durham University (1975)

A study of social organisation in certain villages in west khur as an Iran, with special reference to kinship and agricultural activities

Holmes, Judith Ella

Titre : A study of social organisation in certain villages in west khur as an Iran, with special reference to kinship and agricultural activities

Auteur : Holmes, Judith Ella

Université de soutenance : Durham University.

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy 1975

Résumé
Their semi-desert environment has a history of political insecurity. Agriculture depends upon irrigation. Land ownership varies between large-scale and peasant proprietors, the former employing share-croppers. Land utilization is restricted by techniques, environmental conditions and conflicts between landowners. Only large-scale owners maintain qanats ; lack of maintenance can produce poverty and settlement decline. Cultivation practices and crop-division vary between villages. Prosperity differs between oxen-owning and oxen less share-croppers ; high job-mobility among the latter expresses dissatisfaction with working conditions. Marx’s concept of alienation is useful in examining the landlord-peasant relationship. Land Reform requires careful management to be effective. The nuclear family, occasionally extending over three generations, is the basis of kinship structure. After marriage a new household is formed in stages. Patriline,ages are small and unnamed, but ,agnates are united by common religious status and ,agnatic support can have political importance. Women have no descent status. The kinship network provides friendship, hospitality, money aid and marriage-partners for its members. Over a third of the population examined married kin. E ogamy within the patriline,age is a descent structure. ’Bride-price is distinct from an insurance specified in the marriage-contract, the latter sum could prevent marriage dissolution. Marriage stability is related to the degree of kin between partners, co-residence at the time of marriage, and whether the marriage is a first union. Certain aspects of religious ceremonies, particularly those commemorating the death of ¥usayn, express problems in other social institutions. agical beliefs and sorcery practices attempt to explain and control irrational events. Within the two social classes rank is differentiated by a number of factors. Village administration is effected by informal power. Redfield’s concept of folk-culture is not an accurate description of Iranian village society.

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