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Universität Hamburg (2018)

Environmental (In)Justice in Namibia : Costs and benefits of community-based water and wildlife management

Kiaka, Richard Dimba

Titre : Environmental (In)Justice in Namibia : Costs and benefits of community-based water and wildlife management

Umwelt(un)gerechtigkeit in Namibia : Kosten und Nutzen von community-based Wasser- und Wildtiermanagement

Auteur : Kiaka, Richard Dimba

Université de soutenance : Universität Hamburg

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy 2018

Résumé partiel
This thesis draws from 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork amongst pastoral communities living in ǂKhoadi ǁHôas conservancy, in the arid north-western Namibia. The thesis explores the socioeconomic consequences of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) on the communities. Two forms of CBNRM are explored namely : community-based water management (CBWM) and community-based wildlife management. This is because they not only concern the management of resources (water and wildlife) that are salient to the livelihoods the communities, but also that their management intersect with significant theoretical and policy implications. CBNRM policies and practices intervene on an environment which does not only shape the lifeworld of the communities but is also a space where actors of different worldviews participate to influence outcomes of community –based water and wildlife management. Environmental Justice is used as an analytical framework. Community-based wildlife management has generally contributed to the recovery of species diversity and wildlife populations, in particular elephants and predator wild animals. Accompanying these ecological gains are socioeconomic benefits and costs whose distribution generates mixed analyses. On the one hand, the conservancy programme has opened communal wildlife resources in ǂKhoadi ǁHôas for capital accumulation by largely foreign private tour companies through tourism and trophy hunting industry. The industry earns revenues within this formerly marginalised communal area of Namibia. Nevertheless, from total revenues, only a small fraction of about 20% is distributed locally, largely through employment and training benefits. The distribution of these benefits is skewed, as mostly younger people who have received at least secondary education get employed and consequently trained. In addition, their wages remain low and are not shared easily or widely with the community. The bulk of incomes from tourism and trophy hunting remains with tourism and associated companies in form of profits ; and the state in form of taxes and levies. Whilst benefits from wildlife-based international tourism to communities remain low and are perceived unfairly distributed by the local communities, increased population of elephants and predator animals produce costs shared by pastoralists, such as water consumption and loss of livestock respectively. On the contrary, private tourism industry and the conservation community, which profit the most from conservation, pay less than their fair share. Hardly is fair compensation of the damages and loss to pastoralists made. The success of conservation and tourism industry in ǂKhoadi ǁHôas comes at the expense of livestock economy which communities attach immense value to. Hence the contribution of CBNRM to reducing inequalities and alleviating poverty is marginal in ǂKhoadi ǁHôas and furtherance put to a critical test.

Mots clés  : Namibia , Environmental Justice , Water management , Wildlife management , Pastoralism


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