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Universitat de Barcelona (2019)

Áreas fuente de polvo desértico e impacto en la mortalidad en Ahvaz, SW de Irán

Gonzalez Romero, Adolfo

Titre : Áreas fuente de polvo desértico e impacto en la mortalidad en Ahvaz, SW de Irán

Auteur : Gonzalez Romero, Adolfo

Université de soutenance : Universitat de Barcelona

Grade : Màster Oficial en Recursos Minerals i Riscos Geològics, 2019

Résumé
The city of Ahvaz is located in the SW of Iran and is considered one of the most polluted cities in the world by the World Health Organization. One of the causes is desert dust. The city is affected by desert dust from hot spot areas, such as Sahara, Sahel, the basins of Al-Batin, Al-Sahba, Al-Rimah, Tigris and Euphrates basins. The effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) on health has been studied in multiple articles throughout Europe, Asia and North America, but in Middle East and Africa are scarce. Accordingly, we aim at evaluating this effect in the city of Ahvaz. Data provided by the Department of Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center shows that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 reach 127 and 48 μg/m3 (2015-2018) and 96 and 94 % of the days exceed 50 and 25 μg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5. After calculating the daily air mass back-trajectories reaching Ahvaz in the study period, and applying a cluster analysis, we were able to identify six dominant air mass transport trajectories (cluster) and the most common originates on the border between Syria and Iraq, followed by Saudi Arabia, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Algeria and Atlantic. The averaged levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-PM2.5 (coarse fraction) for each cluster are very similar, which indicates that the major contribution of PM to the city is due to the closest source areas (independently of the cluster). The risk of daily mortality increases for each daily increment of 10 μg/m3 PM and is different for every cluster, with an increase from 0.5 to 2% (95% CI) for PM10, and from 0.8 to 2.7% (95% CI) for the coarse fraction, while for PM2.5 the effect is not statistically significant. The back-trajectories from Algeria and Egypt, that cross the region of Al-Basra, with high desert dust emissions and high anthropogenic pollution, are those having the greatest impact on mortality risk.

Mots Clés : Pols atmosfèrica Deserts Iran Contaminació atmosfèrica Tesis de màster Dust Deserts Iran Atmospheric pollution

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