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Northwest A&F University (2019)

Coupling Effects of Water and Fertilizer on Growth of Drip-Fertigated Spring Maize in Arid Northwest China


Titre : Coupling Effects of Water and Fertilizer on Growth of Drip-Fertigated Spring Maize in Arid Northwest China

Auteur : 邹海洋;

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2019

Université : Northwest A&F University

An abundance of light and heat resources in the arid regions of northwestern China is conducive to high yields of the crops.However,due to water shortages and low use efficiency of water and fertilizer in this region,modern agriculture that develops efficient use of water and fertilizer was constrained.In recent years,with the advancement of agricultural intensification,maize production in the northwest region has developed rapidly,and the application of drip irrigation has gradually increased.In the northwestern region of China,where water resources are scarce.Thus,how to use drip fertigation technology to improve maize yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency is of great significance for the development of efficient and green modern agriculture.In this study,spring maize(Qiangsheng 51)was tested.A field experiment was conducted during 2015 and 2016growing seasons at Wuwei Experimental Station for Efficient Use of Crop Water,Ministry of Agriculture,northwest China.In order to explore drip irrigation and fertilization modes for improving water and fertilizer use efficiency of maize.Using ’Qiangsheng 51’ as the test cultivar,the field experiment was subjected to four water supply levels,I60,I75,I90and I105 in 2015,and I60,I80,I100 and I120 in 2016,were in interaction with four fertilization levels that based on different ratios of N-P2O5-K2O,i.e60-30-30,120-60-60,180-90-90 and 240-120-120 kg/hm2,ETc is the average annual crop evapotranspiration.This resulted in 16 treatments.The effects of different drip irrigation and fertilization levels on the growth,yield and components,root indicators,water use efficiency,NPK use efficiency,NPK accumulation,soil moisture and soil temperature were analyzed.The growth characteristics,dry matter accumulation,root distribution,soil water and heat distribution,and water and fertilizer consumption mechanisms of spring maize under different levels of drip irrigation were studied.Moreover,the relative root length density distribution model of spring maize was established.The HYDRUS-2D was used to simulate and verify the soil moisture and heat transfer patterns of different drip irrigation fertilization spring maize.Following are the main achievements of this thesis :(1)The effects of different water and fertilizer supplies on spring maize growth and dry matter accumulation under drip fertigation conditions were investigated.And each parameter was comprehensively evaluated using the Principal Component Analysis method.The plant height and stem diameter of spring maize with different water and fertilizer treatments increased with the increase of irrigation and fertilization levels,and the maximum values were found in I105F240 and I120F24040 treatments in 2015 and 2016,respectively.In the two years,LAI showed the law of "increasing-platform-lowering".The quality of root dry matter decreased with the increase of fertilizer application rates,and reached the maximum at F180.The excessive application of fertilizer was not conducive to root growth.From the ratio of root to shoot,the ratio of root to shoot decreased with the increase of irrigation amount,and increased first and then decreased with the increase of fertilizer application,and the maximum value was obtained in I60F120 treatment.As a harvest index that directly reflects the "source-library" relationship of crop groups,the effects of irrigation and fertilization on spring maize harvest index were extremely significant(P<0.01)The net assimilation rate(NAR)of spring maize showed an "M"-shaped double-peak curve change during the whole growth period.The dry matter quality of the above-ground part was consistent with the Logistic growth model,and the fitting result was superior(R2=0.996,P<0.01).Plant growth status is closely related to the formation of crop yield.Principal component analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate the correlation between spring maize yield and growth index,water use efficiency,harvest index and net assimilation rate.It was found that the above-ground dry matter,net assimilation rate and yield were most closely related.The highest score of irrigation and fertilization were achieved by100%105%ETc and F180 fertilization,respectively.(2)Optimized water and fertilizer management achieved a synergistic improvement in spring maize yield,as well as water and fertilizer use efficiency.Moreover,it significantly reduced fertilizer losses.Optimized water and fertilizer management achieved a synergistic improvement in spring maize yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency,and significantly reduced fertilizer losse

Mots clés : Spring maize; Drip fertigation; Yield; Root system; NRLD distribution model; Water and fertilizer use efficiency;

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Page publiée le 13 février 2020