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Gansu Agricultural University (2019)

Effects of Mulching Patterns on Soil Hydrothermal Regimes and Yield Formation of Potato in Semiarid Rain-fed Ecosystem

陈玉章;

Titre : Effects of Mulching Patterns on Soil Hydrothermal Regimes and Yield Formation of Potato in Semiarid Rain-fed Ecosystem

Auteur : 陈玉章;

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2019

Université : Gansu Agricultural University

Résumé partiel
Potato(Solanum tuberosum L.)is the main crop in rain-fed cold and dry agricultural area of northwest China.Plastic film mulching is a widely used cultivation technique for drought-resistance and soil moisture conservation in this area.However,plastic film mulching has the problems of soil cumulative pollution and increasing cost,so it is urgently need to develop the technology of replacing or reducing the use of plastic film.Straw mulching is a kind of sustainable green production practice which is ecological and environmental protection,combining planting crop and breeding soil,and can realize straw resource recycling.The northwest cold and dry region is rich in maize straw resources.If the traditional whole-ground straw mulching method is adapted,there are many problems,such as crushing maize straw energy consumption and effort,difficult to remove residual film of maize harvested by machine,and influence potato sowing and harvesting by machine.A field experiment was performed in rain-fed cold and dry agricultural area of northwest China in 2016(dry year)and 2017(normal)year to evaluate the effects of whole maize straw partial coverage and plastic film mulching on growth and development of potato,soil hydrothermal conditions,potato plant water content,photosynthetic characteristic,tuber yield and water use efficiency(WUE),and this results will provide theoretical basis and technical support for high yield and high-efficiency-green cultivation for potato mulching with whole maize straw.Six treatments were established:RT,alternating large ridges and small furrows with whole maize straw mulched only on furrows.Two rows of potato were planted in the ridges with 0.4 m spacing between rows ;RS,alternating large ridges and small furrows with whole maize straw mulched only on furrows.One row of potato was planted in the middle of ridges ;PT,alternating the strips mulched with whole maize straw and bare plots with no ridges.Two rows of potato were planted in the non-mulched strips ;PS,alternating the strips mulched with whole maize straw and bare plots with no ridges.One row of potato was planted in the middle of non-mulched strips ;FM,alternating small and wide ridges both mulched by black polyethylene ;CK,traditional-flat planting without mulching.The row distances were all 0.6 m.The main results of this research are as follows:1.Compaed with CK,both plastic film mulching and whole maize straw mulching treatments could significantly improve tuber yield and water use efficiency in dryland potato in both of years.FM and RT produced the highest drying tuber yield,and FM and RT increased drying yield on average by 53.8%and 52.0%,respectively,compared with CK in two years.The drying tuber yield of RT and FM had no significant difference in both two years,indicating that the suitable whole maize straw mulching practice could reach the tuber yield level of PM.According to the analysis of whole maize straw partial mulching patterns,the yield of RT and PT treatments was larger than that of RS and PS treatments,respectively,and the furrow mulching with whole maize straw(RT and RS)treatments was larger than that of flat mulching with whole maize straw treatments(PT and PS).Analysis mulching practices production mechanism,regardless of drought or normal year,under the condition of the same density,from the point of view of tuber yield composition components mainly mulching siginificantly improved the potato weight(r=0.883**0.980**).The average weight of single potato in mulching treatments in two years was 42%higher than that of CK,and the increase of RT and FM was the largest(56%62%),while the tuber number per plant in mulching treatments was slightly lower than that of CK.The weight of single potato formed in the later stage had a strong compensation effect on the insufficient number of tuber in the early stage.From the point of view of vegetative growth and reproductive growth,the main reason for increasing yield by mulching was that it significantly promoted vegetative growth

Mots clés : straw strips mulching; whole plastic film mulching; soil water; soil temperature; photosynthetic characteristics;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 13 février 2020