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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Argentine → Influencia de las especies leñosas sobre la productividad, la calidad y el crecimiento aéreo de gramíneas perennes nativas del sur del Caldenal

Universidad Nacional del Sur (2016)

Influencia de las especies leñosas sobre la productividad, la calidad y el crecimiento aéreo de gramíneas perennes nativas del sur del Caldenal

Blazquez, Francisco Rubén

Titre : Influencia de las especies leñosas sobre la productividad, la calidad y el crecimiento aéreo de gramíneas perennes nativas del sur del Caldenal

Auteur : Blazquez, Francisco Rubén

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional del Sur

Grade : Doctor en Agronomia 2016

Résumé
The interaction between woody and grass species is a common feature of semi-arid rangelands, as is southern Caldenal in central Argentina. Woody species can exert positive and/or negative influence on the growth of neighbouring grass species through imposing changes in the abiotic conditions in which the latter species grow, leading to a balance in which either facilitative or competitive interactions prevail. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of woody species on grass growth over a 2-y period. The study comprised two morpho-physiologically different woody species and two cool-season perennial grass species highly preferred by domestic livestock. The species chosen for the study were Prosopis caldenia and Larrea divaricata, a warm-season deciduous and an evergreen woody species, respectively ; and Nassella clarazii and Piptochaetium napostaense as representatives of perennial grasses highly preferred by livestock. The study involved the assessment of tiller growth parameters, biomass production and forage quality in grasses growing beneath the canopy of woody species and in open rangeland areas. Tiller growth was evaluated through measurements of height, pseudostem length, green blade length and total green length as the sum the latter two parameters. In addition, soil temperature, pH and water, nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter content were estimated at the same study sites. Tiller growth parameters of grasses growing beneath the canopy of woody species were generally higher than those of grasses growing in open areas. Also, total green legth of grass tillers tended to be higher when growing beneath the canopy of P. caldenia than L. divaricata. Biomass production differed between grasses and woody species under consideration for L. divaricata might have favoured biomass production of P. napostaense while P. caldenia might have favoured that of N. clarazii. At the end of vegetative growth period, crude protein content of P. napostaense was lower beneath the canopy of woody species than in open areas. Whereas, crude protein content of N. clarazii was higher beneath the canopy of P. caldenia than L. divaricata. Fiber content, both acid and neutral detergent, at the end of vegetative growth period was highest in grasses growing beneath the canopy of L. divaricata. At the end of reproductive growth period, neutral detergent fiber content in N. clarazii was higher beneath the canopy of P. caldenia than L. divaricata. Acid detergent fiber content at the end of both growth periods was higher beneath the canopy of P. caldenia and in open areas between individuals of this species than beneath the canopy and open areas between individuals of L. divaricata for both grass species. The lowest records of in vitro digestibility were registered beneath the canopy and open areas between individuals of P. caldenia for both grass species and for both growth periods. In general, the results obtained in this study suggest that P. caldenia and L. divaricata, when improving in their area of influence the nitrogen content, organic matter and apparent density of the soil will have a certain level of facilitation on P. napostaense and N. clarazii. However, this improvement did not favor substantially the aerial growth of their tillers, the production of aerial biomass and / or some parameters associated with their forage quality. The results obtained, under the conditions under which the present study was carried out, suggest that P. caldenia and L. divaricata have a neutral or negative effect on growth, aerial biomass production and quality of P. napostaense and N. clarazii in the semi-arid natural grasslands of southern Caldenal.

Mots Clés  : Botánica ; Plantas leñosas ; Pastizales ; Biomasa ; Distrito Fitogeográfico del Caldén (Caldenal) ; Prosopis caldenia ; Larrea divaricata ; Piptochaetium napostaense ; Nassella clarazii

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Page publiée le 18 mars 2020