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Ahmadu Bello University (1998)

VARIABILITY IN GENOTYPIC RESPONSE TO END-OF-SEASON DROUGHT IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea. L.)

ADAMU, USMAN IZGE

Titre : VARIABILITY IN GENOTYPIC RESPONSE TO END-OF-SEASON DROUGHT IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea. L.)

Auteur : ADAMU, USMAN IZGE

Université de soutenance : Ahmadu Bello University

Grade : Masters of Science in Genetics and Crop Breeding 1998

Résumé
Field and screenhouse experiments were conducted during the cropping seasons of 1995 and 1996 at the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Samaru, Zaria (11°11’N, 70°38’E). The treatments consisted of 16 groundnut genotypes : JL-24, 55-437. 48-115B, RRB, ICG 221, ICG 4601, ICG 4790, ICGV 86745, ICGV 86708, ICGV 86702. ICG 4747, ICGV-SM 85045, ICGV 88023, ICGV 86124. ICGV 90127 and FLEUR 11. The field experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. There were 2 planting dates in the field experiments ; normal planting (May to October) and late planting (August to December). The aim of late planting was to expose the groundnut genotypes to end-of-season drought. In the screen house, treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design with two replications. Plants were grown under adequate moisture and controlled moisture from 50% flowering. This was done to investigate the response of the different genotypes to end-of-season drought. Results indicated significant differences (P > 0.05) among the parameters measured in control and end-of-season drought experiments. Yield parameters among the genotypes were significantly different (P > 0 .05 ) , except for oil and protein content. Reduction of up to 39, 33 and 28% in pod yield, haulm yield and number of pods per plant, respectively were recorded as a result of end-of-season drought. Genotypes ICG 4747, ICGV 86745, ICGV 86124, FLEUR 11 and ICGV-SM 85045 recorded the highest pod yield under drought condition in the field. Results from the screen house did not follow similar trend to that of the field. Genotypes responded differently to end-of-season drought, probably, as a result of variations in water use ratio (due to variation in the shoot dry matter recorded) or as a result of early maturity in some genotypes. However, large variations in response of genotypes to end-ofseason drought could be due to the ability of genotypes to withstand drought as a result of physiological, morphological and anatomical adaptations and or early maturity. High yield obtained by most genotypes could be as a result of their yield potential. In breeding groundnut for end-of-season drought, a balance must be struck between yield potential, adaptations, duration or earliness of the crop.

Mots clés : VARIABILITY, GENOTYPIC, RESPONSE, END-OF-SEASON, DROUGHT, GROUNDNUT, (Arachis hypogaea. L.).

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