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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2018 → Genetic diversity and conservation biology of Moringa peregrina populations in Sinai, Egypt

Universität Greifswald (2018)

Genetic diversity and conservation biology of Moringa peregrina populations in Sinai, Egypt

Dadamouny Mohamed Awad

Titre : Genetic diversity and conservation biology of Moringa peregrina populations in Sinai, Egypt

Auteur : Dadamouny Mohamed Awad

Université de soutenance : Universität Greifswald

Grade : Doctoral Thesis 2018

Because Moringa is rich in secondary metabolites and phenolics, we faced a challenge in extracting a pure DNA required for AFLP (the first proposed genotyping method). Later, different DNA isolation methods were tested to overcome the obstacles caused by phenolics and sugars, an AFLP protocol that worked well with the cultivated seedlings at the botanical garden in Greifswald. The markers for the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) were as well tested that showed a monomorphic structure between all samples. Finally, SSR (microsatellite) markers were established. To optimize DNA extraction, the method of Doyle and Doyle was modified and optimized. This is an ideal method for obtaining a non-fragmented DNA that could be used for AFLP. In addition, two other DNA extraction methods ; (KingFisher Flex robot using Omega M1130 extraction Kits, and spin columns and 96-plates using Stratec kits). Although we achieved similar results for both Robot kits (Omega) and Stratec kits, the amplification for most of the samples extracted with Robot did not work, therefore the Stratec kit was the method of choice as it has also a lower cost, combined with a high quality of DNA. For ITS, no polymorphism was found for 28 samples of M. peregrina from Sinai (sequences submitted to GenBank). However, since microsatellite markers of M. peregrina were not known, it was a challenge to try a cross amplification from other species with well-known microsatellite primers. Cross-amplification of 16 primers known from the related species M. oleifera was tested, and three multiplex PCR reactions were established after testing different annealing temperatures and different primers concentrations. This included 13 primers out of the 16 investigated markers which gave a reliable band. All methods used for genetic assessments for the different Moringa species are compiled in a comparative review to look for connections between the different Moringa species. For Moringaceae, M. oleifera and M. peregrina are closely related to each other. Both species have slender trunks, with thick, tough bark and tough roots and bilaterally symmetrical flowers with a short hypanthium. All but one SSR markers used in this study are highly informative However, the degree of polymorphy varied considerably within the 13 markers used. The Probability of Identity (PI) for all loci was 2.6 x 10-9 with high resolution. The percentage of polymorphic loci for all populations was 88.5±2.2 ; figures for single populations were 92.3%, 84.6%, 84.6%, and 92.3% for the wadis WM, WA, WF, and WZ, respectively. The genotype accumulation curve as well demonstrated that 7–8 markers were necessary to discriminate between 100% of the multilocus genotypes. Significant departures from HWE were detected for eight loci (P < 0.001), probably due a high degree of inbreeding within population. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.86 and from 0 to 0.81, respectively. However, for the pooled population, excluding the monomorphic locus MO41, HO and HE ranged from 0.069 to 0.742 and from 0.126 to 0.73 with averages of 0.423 and 0.469, respectively. The mean of FST was 0.133, indicating that, due to the long generation time of M. peregrina, there is still relatively little differentiation between the four remaining populations. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the old populations of M. peregrina are still genetically diverse where 75% of variance was recorded within individuals and 83% within populations. An analysis with STRUCTURE, varying the parameter K between 1 and 7, revealed the most pronounced genetic structure for K=3, thus uniting the populations from two neighboured wadis (W. Agala and W. Feiran). The three groups seem to be now genetically isolated. (They may be remainders of a formerly contiguous population, especially when considering the change towards a drier climate in Northern Africa within the last 6000 years). Six clones of each two individuals collected from the same wadi were found, pointing to vegetative dispersal via broken twigs, which may have rooted after flash floods. It may be an alternative mode of reproduction under harsh conditions. Our data reveal a low gene flow between three of the four wadis, suggesting that the trees are relictual populations. In general, conservation of populations from the three genetically most diverse wadis and cross-breeding of trees within a reforestation program is recommended as an effective strategy to ensure the survival of M. peregrina at Sinai, Egypt.


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