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Universität Stuttgart (2016)

Study on the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the West African sub-region

Kwakye, Stephen Oppong

Titre : Study on the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the West African sub-region

Auteur : Kwakye, Stephen Oppong

Université de soutenance : Universität Stuttgart

Grade : Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) 2016

Résumé partiel
WATER is LIFE and the economy of many countries including the West African sub-region depends directly or indirectly on the water availability. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports predict and continues to predict global warming and a changing climate. Because there is a strong interconnection betweentheclimateandthehydrologicalcycle,anychangesthatwouldoccurintheclimate system would also affect the hydrological cycle. As a result of the above and other reasons, a clear scientific research and understanding of the effects of the changing climate on the hydrology and water resources of an area is always eminent and crucial. Western Africa is a fast developing sub-region within the African continent. It faces challenges like water scarcity, diseases, famine, unemployment and sometimes poor decisions on water related projects. Several studies by other researchers have revealed that, climate change has already made it’s footprint in the sub-region. In this study, I tried to ascertain further how much climate change is happening in the West Africa sub-region and to also determine its effect on the hydrology of the region. And in doing this, different latest climate models and simulations in conjunction with a conceptual lumped hydrological model were used in the study. The study was performed on the Black Volta Catchment in the sub-region which has an approximate area of 150,000 km2. Precipitation is a climate variable that influences the hydrology and water resources of an area. For any hydrological or climate model, one has to know the spatial and or temporal trend of this important variable (i.e. Precipitation) and how reliable it’s observed and ground-truth data is. The observed annual rainfall cycles, rainfall correlation between pairs of stations, as well as what influences precipitation in the Black Volta Basin were investigated. Precipitation time series for about 20 stations ranging from 1961 to 2005 were used

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