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Ain Shams University (2019)

THE OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOR THE PURPOSE OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE NORTH WEST COAST OF EGYPT

KHATER, ASMAA AHMED MOHAMED HELMY

Titre : THE OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOR THE PURPOSE OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE NORTH WEST COAST OF EGYPT

Auteur : KHATER, ASMAA AHMED MOHAMED HELMY.

Etablissement de soutenance : Ain Shams University

Grade : Master of Science (MSc) in Agricultural Sciences (Agriculture in Desert and Salt affected Areas) 2019

Résumé
Sustainable agricultural development and the increasing agricultural product from the desert areas of Egypt under the pressure of irrigation water scarcity considered as a big challenge of agricultural planners and decision makers. Rainfall is the primary source of irrigation water in the northwest coast of Egypt ; however, existing water harvesting techniques in this area do not ensure the optimal use of rainfall for agricultural purposes. This study was carried out to assess basin-scale hydrology potentialities and how available annual rainfall could be used effectively to increase agricultural production across the whole year through new cropping systems. The present study research includes data related to agricultural production in the form of geospatial layers, including climate, soil, land covers unite and water catchment areas. Thematic classification of Sentinal-2 imagery was carried out to produce the land cover and crop composition maps using ground control points that are collected through fieldwork and following the FAO system of land cover classification (FAO – LCCS 2000). Contour lines and spot height points from topographic maps were used to produce a digital elevation model (DEM). ETo was calculated from the meteorological data using the Penman-Montieth formula. This formula applied by the empirical method to calculate ETo, which adjusted by crop coefficient to estimate ETc. The meteorological parameters used in this equation were taken from Matrouh station. Then DEM was used to delineate basins, sub-basins, and water outlet points through the long process using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (Arc SWAT). The primary soil type of the study area data was carried out from existing soil maps of the Land master Plan scale (1:100,000). Twenty-four surface soil samples (0 – 40 cm) were collected from the identified outlet points of the studied area. Climatic data were collected from four climatic stations, and then the kriging technique was used to produce maps of temperature and rainfall. Then all layers were included in (Arc SWAT). The amount of precipitation (81.9 mm), surface water runoff(4.46 mm), potential evapotranspiration (70.5 mm), and actual evapotranspiration(7.10 mm) for the years (2004 to 2017) shown as results of (Arc SWAT). The results showed that the study area receives a significant amount of precipitation almost every three years (mm/yr) ; however, water harvesting methods are inappropriate to store water to use in agricultural during drought seasons. Many water catchment areas and evapotranspiration rates that were calculated using the SWAT model indicate that the area could be cultivated throughout the year in two seasons after significant modification in water harvesting methods. The produced land cover map showed that the two tree crops (olive and fig) cover 195.8 km2 and herbaceous crops (barley and wheat) cover 154 km2. DEM showed that elevation in the study area extends from -3 meters below sea level to 250 meters above sea level. ETo was estimated from meteorological data according to Penman- Montieth method. Mean ETo was 4.4 while, Maximum ETo was 7.26 and Minimum ETo was 1.97. In study area, ETc values varied from 0 to 3.4 mm/day according to land cover type. Soil map specified that most of the study area belongs to Soil unit that described by (Very shallow gravelly and rocky soils and barren rock).

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Page publiée le 7 avril 2020, mise à jour le 28 février 2022