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University of KwaZulu-Natal (2018)

Climate, environmental and socio-economic factors for Malaria transmission modelling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Ebhuoma, Osadolor Obiahon

Titre : Climate, environmental and socio-economic factors for Malaria transmission modelling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Auteur : Ebhuoma, Osadolor Obiahon.

Université de soutenance : University of KwaZulu-Natal

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Sciences 2018

Résumé partiel
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) largely bears the burden of the global malaria disease, with the transmission and intensity influenced by the interaction of a variety of climatic, environmental, socio-economic, and human factors. Other factors include parasitic and vectoral factors. In South Africa (SA) in general and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in particular, the change of the malaria control intervention policy in 2000, may be responsible for the significant progress over the past two decades in reducing malaria case report to near zero. Currently, malaria incidence in KZN is less than 1 case per 1000 persons at risk placing the province in the malaria elimination stage. To meeting the elimination target, it is necessary to study the dynamics of malaria transmission in KZN employing various analytical/statistical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence malaria transmission by employing different analytical models and approaches in a setting with low malaria endemicity and transmission. This involves a sound appraisal of the existing literature on the contribution of remote sensing technology in understanding malaria transmission, evaluation of existing malaria control intervention ; delineation of empirical map of malaria risk ; provide information on the climatic, environmental and socio-economic factors that influences malaria risk and transmission ; and formulation of a relevant malaria forecast and surveillance models. The investigator started with a systemic review of studies in chapter two. The studies were aimed at identifying significant remotely-sensed climatic and environmental determinants of malaria transmission for modelling malaria transmission and risk in SSA via a variety of statistical approaches. Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was identified as the most significant remotely-sensed climatic/environmental determinants of malaria transmission in SSA. Majority of the studies employed the generalised linear modelling approach compared to the Bayesian modelling approach. In the third chapter, malaria cases from the endemic areas of KZN with remotely-sensed climatic and environmental data were used to model the climatic and environmental determinants of malaria transmission and develop a malaria risk map in KZN.

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