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University of Cape Town (2019)

Review and gap analysis of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Windhoek, Namibia

Nambinga, Linekela Elias

Titre : Review and gap analysis of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Windhoek, Namibia

Auteur : Nambinga, Linekela Elias

Université de soutenance : University of Cape Town.

Grade : MPhil (Master of Philosophy in Urban Infrastructure Design & Management) 2019

Résumé partiel
With an ever-increasing population and global warming, fresh water resources are nearing depletion resulting in a global water crisis. As a consequence, cases of drought have been reported worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to climate change, urbanisation adds strain to infrastructure as well as water supply and the management of water resources. As a result, most developing countries are faced with a water management challenge. There is thus a need for a paradigm shift towards an Integrated Water Management (IWM) approach. Worldwide, countries have responded to the Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) concept through the implementation of various management strategies ; with Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) emerging from Australia. Some closely allied management strategies in response to IUWM emerged in the USA as Low-Impact Development (LID), in the UK as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), and in New Zealand as Low-Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD). Namibia is situated along the south-west coast of Africa and is considered the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa. It is characterised by a semi-arid environment, with more than 80% covered by desert or semi-desert. The country is regularly afflicted by drought and has fluctuating and unreliable rainfall patterns, often accompanied by high evaporation rates. The City of Windhoek, as the capital city, the biggest municipality and also the largest densely populated town in Namibia, is faced with an ever-increasing shortage of water for its inhabitants. For close to 50 years, the water scarcity situation has led to direct waste water reclamation for potable re-use in Windhoek. Other measures implemented by the City of Windhoek (CoW) towards IUWM include Water Demand Management (WDM), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and Water Conservation (WC). In order for Windhoek to transform into a Water Sensitive City, the implementation of WSUD is imperative. Although the CoW has implemented measures towards IUWM, more options still need to be explored in order to contribute to IUWM processes and to ultimately become a Water Sensitive City. This research was aimed at conducting a comprehensive review of existing WSUD practices within the CoW and identifying gaps pertaining to WSUD implementation.


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