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University of Zululand (2019)

In vitro evaluation of nutritional content and anthelmintic values of Kigelia africana fruit to domesticated ruminants

Ndwandwe, K.C.

Titre : In vitro evaluation of nutritional content and anthelmintic values of Kigelia africana fruit to domesticated ruminants

Auteur : Ndwandwe, K.C.

Université de soutenance : University of Zululand

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture : Animal Science 2019

Résumé partiel
Food security is at risk due to the ever growing world population. More effort should be put on improving agricultural production since farming provides the primary source of food for humans. Livestock farming ; be it commercial or small scale, plays a major role in supplementing the protein component of human food especially with the expensive nature of plant proteins. In northern KwaZulu-Natal, both large (cow) and small (goat and sheep) ruminant farming plays a vital role in the rural communities as they do not only provide proteins, but are used for traditional ceremonies, bride price, prestige and clothing. These ruminants require adequate and constant nutrient availability to meet their best production standards but forage availability and quality declines, especially in winter, which results in poor animal performance. Besides forage limitation, water scarcity is also a major problem in this area with the recent drought that hit in 2015. Therefore, alternative indigenous forages with feed potential and high moisture should be investigated, as water from feed can assist in improving animal production in this area. Kigelia africana plant has been reported to produce fruits (sausage fruit) that are suspected to have high moisture, be rich in secondary compounds and persist throughout the dry season but are not used by animals as feed. Rather, it has been used by humans as flavour, to ferment traditional beers, treat worms and even as an aphrodisiac. Hence, the aim of the study was to explore Kigelia africana fruit (sausage fruit) as a potential feed supplement and its anthelmintic value in domesticated ruminants. Five feed portions were made from the sausage fruits ; 1. Exocarp (Ex), 2. Endocarp (En), 3. Endocarp plus seeds (En+SS), 4. Seeds (SS) and 5. Whole fruit (Wf). The nutritional value of feed portions was determined by measuring their chemical composition and the force required to break-open the fruit (shear force). For chemical composition, dry matter (DM), moisture content (MC), crude protein (CP), condensed tannins (CT), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose and hemi-cellulose were measured. Fibre components were analysed using the ANKOM filter bag method while proteins were analysed using the Kjeldhal method. Acid butanol Assay and the Warner-Blatzer shear device were used to analyse condensed tannins. Shear force was measured using the Warner Blatzer shearing device where maximum force required the feed (F Max), distance covered vi by the blade at breakage (dL at break), and force during break (F at break) were measured.

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