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Philipps-Universität Marburg (2019)

Sand Dune Systems in Iran - Distribution and Activity.

Abbasi, Hamidreza

Titre : Sand Dune Systems in Iran - Distribution and Activity.

Auteur : Abbasi, Hamidreza

Université de soutenance : Philipps-Universität Marburg

Grade : Doctor of Natural Science (Dr. rer. nat.) 2019

Résumé partiel
Wind erosion and shifting sand dunes as a land degradation process is a serious problem in Iran. There are significant gaps in our knowledge of Iran sand dunes in national scale for the English speaking international scientific community as well as wind erosion and sand transport in Sistan plain. Identifying active dunes and monitoring areas with migrating sand are important prerequisites for mitigating these damages. In addition, wind erosion is one of the most serious problems in the Sistan region, located in the East of Iran and near the border of Afghanistan. This thesis has two major purposes : (1) to assess sand dune activity in national scale of Iran (2) to investigate wind regime and investigated spatial and temporal patterns of wind erosion process in Sistan region. With regard to first objective, the spatial variation of the wind energy environment based on the sand drift potential (DP), with using Fryberger and Dean’s (1979) method, was calculated from 204 meteorological stations in and around Iran’s deserts. Three commonly dune activity models – the Lancaster mobility index (1988), the Tsoar mobility index (2005), and the index developed by Yizhaq et al. (2009) – were used for the evaluation of Iran’s sand dune activity. The analysis of the indices showed that the dunes activity was characterized by great spatial variations across Iran’s deserts. All three models identified fully active dunes in the Sistan plain, the whole of the Lut desert, as well as in the Zirkuh Qaien and Deyhook regions, while the dunes in the northern part of Rig Boland, Booshroyeh and in the Neyshabor dunefields were categorized as stabilized dunes. For other dunes, the models show a less unified activity classification, with the Lancaster and Yizhaq models having more similar results while the Tsoar model stands more apart. Overall the three models delivered comparable results in some instances and diverging results in others. The reasons for this are the use of different parameters and their impact on the model construction. The main contradictions of the three models results are revealed when the wind blows for only short times but with a high energy, like in the north of the Dasht-e Kavir desert (Damagan, Foromad) and at some stations in the wind of the 120 days’ domain (Sedeh Birjand). Field observation demonstrated that dunes in these areas are completely active, but the Lancaster mobility index (LMI) classified them as inactive or semi-active because of a low to moderate percentage of wind events above the transport threshold. At the same time the DP in this region showed high values and thus the Tsoar mobility index (TMI) classified the dunes as active, while the Yizhaq model (YMI) classified them as active or semi-active. In fact, in spite of high wind energy, the percentage of winds above threshold (W%), that is upper 12 knot or 6.2 m s-1 in this study, was rather low, as high speed winds only occur during the warm season, while the rest of the year is characterized by calm weather

Mots clés  : Winderosion Sanddünen Landdegradation Sand Dunes Wind Erosion Earth (Astronomical geography) Land Degredation Erde (Astronomische Geografie)

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Page publiée le 31 mars 2020