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Philipps-Universität Marburg (2019)

Sustainable Resource Management of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Afghanistan

Babury, Mohammad Osman

Titre : Sustainable Resource Management of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Afghanistan

Auteur : Babury, Mohammad Osman

Université de soutenance : Philipps-Universität Marburg

Grade : Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) 2019

Résumé
Afghanistan is an ancient country with rich natural resources and rich traditional medicine. The country is known as a resource base for many wild-collected medicinal and aromatic plants that are well recognized in regional and international markets. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in Afghanistan represent important health and economic components of the country’s biodiversity. The country has a high floristic diversity ; it is estimated that there are about 5,000 species of flowering plants with many of them endemic. Afghanistan is a landlocked country and situated in the subtropical, dry zones of Southwest Asia that has continental types of climate characterized by desert, steppe, and highland temperature and precipitation regimes. The main part of the land cover of Afghanistan, 30,243,985 ha, is made up of rangeland (47%), which is the main habitat for MAPs. The sharp climatic seasonality gives rise to the extensive development in Afghanistan of peculiar diversity of vegetation Wild collection of MAPs has a long history in the country and it contributes to traditional medicine and the local economies of the populations. Afghanistan exports each year around 50 medicinal and aromatic plant raw materials to different countries. Analysis of the export of MAP products shows, that the exports of MAPs has been increased sharply from 2008 to 2016. Within the study period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 16.2% in comparison to 2.4% in the volumes of exports in global trade was observed Increases in the collection of medicinal plants, long lasting war, a breakdown of the governmental and local systems of monitoring, poverty, climate change and the susceptibility of Afghanistan to desertification are the main threats to natural MAP resources. Much of the wild flora of the country is experiencing a significant decline on account of habitat loss and degradation. Government agencies have played a limited role in conservation work over the last four decades, therefore the present status of the natural resources of wild MAPs is a great concern. This study has been conducted with the objectives of resource analysis of potential species of MAPs, and evaluating approaches for sustainable resource management of wild medicinal plants. In this study, four species (Glycyrrihiza sp. Ferula sp., Cuminum sp., and Bunium sp.) have been screened out as the potentially viable products among the wild collections in Afghanistan. In order to conduct this study, four aspects of natural resources were evaluated through appropriate frameworks : status of resources and conservation measures ; socioeconomic ; trade and marketing ; and technological proficiencies for the processing and standardization of products.

Mots clés  : Ferula sp. resources medicinal and aromatic plants Afghanistan Cuminum sp. Bunium sp. Glycyrrhiza sp. Nat Natural resources, energy and environment

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Page publiée le 30 mars 2020