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University of Gezira (2018)

Extraction and Physiochemical Properties of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus .L) Seed Oi

Abdalla, Amir Mohammed Adam

Titre : Extraction and Physiochemical Properties of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus .L) Seed Oi

Auteur : Abdalla, Amir Mohammed Adam

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Chemistry 2018

Résumé
Vegetable oils have been used for centuries as source of energy. There is increasing demand for vegetable oils consumption, therefore plant sources have become the target of researchers in exploring their uses and functional properties. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a valuable fiber and medicinal plant of the Malvaceae family ; its seed oil can be used for cooking and in different industrial applications. This study aimed to extract kenaf seed oil and determine of its physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity and oil refining. All the physicochemical properties were carried out according to the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) official methods. Physicochemical properties of Kenaf seed include moisture content, oil content, crude protein, crude fiber and ash content ; for kenaf seed (red stem) these were 6.4%, 22.08%, 28.55%, 26.98%, 4.5% respectively and for kenaf seed (green stem) they were 5.3%, 22.33%, 28.62%, 29.72%, 4.4% respectively. The proximate analysis of Kenaf seed Oil (KSO) includes moisture content, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, refractive index, colour and density ; for KSO (red stem) these were 0.09%, 0.14%, 33.38 meq/kg, 5.7, 191.35 mgKOH/g, 1.14%, 1.4711, Red:1.4 Yellow:70, 0.90g/ml respectively and for KSO (green stem) they were 0.05%, 0.73%, 20.83 meq/kg, 3.5, 191.04 mgKOH/g, 1.14%, 1.4710, Red : 0.6 Yellow : 70, 0.90g/ml respectively. Fatty acid composition was determined by GC-MS. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acids in the two KSO varieties were Linoleic acid 32.40% in KSO (green stem) and 33.48% in KSO (red stem) followed by Oleic acid 23.65% in (green stem) and 26.23% in (red stem), while the most abundant saturated fatty acids in the two KSO varieties were palmitic acid 21.51% in KSO (green stem) and 24.28% in KSO (red stem) followed by Stearic acid 8.47% in (green stem) and 8.89% in (red stem). The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of KSO extracted by cold pressing was 67%, 84% for KSO (red stem) and KSO (green stem) respectively while for the oil extracted by n-hexane it was 41%, 40% for KSO (red stem) and KSO (green stem) respectively. Free fatty acids and colour were determined for refined KSO (red stem) as 0.046%, (Red 0.4- yellow 3.4) respectively and for refined KSO (green stem) as 0.042%, (red 0.3- yellow 1.6) respectively. The oil has good physicochemical properties and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Cold pressing showed higher antioxidant activity than solvent extraction. The study recommended the analysis of minor components and the study of oil stability due to its high unsaturated fatty acids content.

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