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Lincoln University (1994)

Establishment and grazing management of ’Grasslands Puna’ chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

Arias Carbajal Javier

Titre : Establishment and grazing management of ’Grasslands Puna’ chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

Auteur : Arias Carbajal Javier

Université de soutenance : Lincoln University

Grade : Master of Agricultural Science 1994

’Grasslands Puna’ chicory was bred for dryland farming. Chicory is a pasture herb which is dormant during winter but actively grows in spring, summer and autumn. A wide range of sowing rates have been reported for pure and mixed stands but establishment recommendations have not been clearly defined. Chicory will not survive frequent grazing. Reported results indicate that chicory should be grazed with a long spelling time and lax defoliation, but recent work has shown that hard grazing in spring is required to control primary stem growth so that maximum leaf production can be achieved. Three experiments were carried out to find out more about establishment and grazing management of chicory. The objectives were (a) to determine a suitable chicory sowing rate for either pure swards or pasture mixtures with clovers or winter active grasses and (b) to investigate the responses of chicory to two grazing frequencies and two grazing intensities combined in a 2² factorial design to give four grazing treatments. Herbage mass, botanical components, plant population and taproot weights were measured in two chicory sowing rate field experiments. Plots measured 1.5 m and 2.5 m (3.75 m²). Companion species were ’Grasslands Kopu’ white clover, ’Grasslands Pawera’ red clover, ’Grasslands Matua’ prairie grass and ‘Grasslands Maru’ phalaris. In experiment A there were 27 treatments of 8 single species stands (4 pure chicory sowing rates - 0.75, 1.5, 3 or 6 kg/ha - and each companion species), 10 binary mixtures, and 8 complex mixtures. In experiment 8 treatments were binary mixtures of the four chicory sowing rates and prairie grass or phalaris. Sampling dates for the first three characteristics were 24-28 February, 15-20 May, 16-17 August and 15-19 November 1993. Taproots were dug out only from pure chicory plots on 16 December 1993. Pure chicory production was greatest at high sowing rates. From four harvests, total yields from chicory sown alone ranged from 920 g DM m⁻² yr⁻¹ at 0.75 kg seed/ha to 1480 g DM m⁻² yr⁻¹ at 3 kg/ha. When mixed with ’Pawera’, which yielded from 140 to 380 g DM m⁻² yr⁻¹, chicory yielded from 780 to 1270 g DM m⁻² yr⁻¹. Chicory yielded 830 to 1280 g DM m⁻² when mixed with ’Kopu’ (45 to 250 g DM m⁻² yr⁻¹. In general dry matter yields of companion species and weeds decreased as chicory populations increased. The large seeded species, ’Matua’ prairie grass and ’Pawera’ red clover, were more competitive with chicory than the slower establishing small seeded species, ’Maru’ phalaris and ’Kopu’ white clover. Final population after one year increased from 50 plants m⁻² at 0.75 kg/ha to 135 plants m⁻² at 6 kg/ha. Individual taproots weighed four times more at 0.75 kg than at 6 kg/ha. T

Mots clés : clover ; Grasslands Puna chicory ; Bromus wildenowii Kunth. ; crown diameter ; crown bud number ; cutting ; Cichorium intybus L. ; grazing management ; herbage mass ; Phalaris aquatica L. ; plant competition ; plant components ; plant population ; Sclerotinia spp. ; sheep grazing ; sowing rates ; Trifolium pratense L. ; Trifolium repens L. ; taproot weight ; volunteer clover ; winter grasses


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