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Universidade do Porto (2019)

Efeito das características hidrológicas do solo e da época de sementeira no rendimento de duas variedades de Milho (Zea mays L.)

João Ah Hing Shenga

Titre : Efeito das características hidrológicas do solo e da época de sementeira no rendimento de duas variedades de Milho (Zea mays L.)

Auteur : João Ah Hing Shenga

Université de soutenance : Universidade do Porto

Grade : Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica 2019

Résumé
Several authors have predicted climate change in many regions of the world, and especially in Africa, such changes will negatively affect agriculture, such as the effect of temperature, precipitation, and concentration on CO2 which will conditioned physiological activities and crop development. Soil is considered one of the main factors of production, agricultural management, as is the case of soil preparation and irrigation can influence changes in physique properties and compromise plant development. This work was dedicated to the study of the effect of soil hydrological characteristics and sowing time with two varieties of maize (Zea mays, L.). The study used mixed design (split plot) with three replications, where two maize varieties (Matuba and ZM523) were sown in four sowing seasons (April 2, April 16, May 15 and May 28, 2019), Soil samples were extracted and water infiltration readings were taken from the soil at 3 test times (before and after the soil mobilization and flowering phase). Harvest Index (HI) values and Crop Yield (CY) were significant affected (p <0,05) by Sowing Season (SS). The mean of HI of plants sown at the beginning of April (SS1=28±3%) and at the end of May (SS4=27±3%) did not differ from each other, and obtained lower values compared to plants sown in mid-April (SS2 = 31±3%) and mid-May (SS3=33±6%). Crop Yield was lower in maize sown in early April (SS1 = 19 ± 5t / ha) than in maize sown from mid-April (SS2=26±3t/ha, SS3=24±3t/ha and SS4=28±5t/ha). Sowing Seasons significantly affected (p<0,05) Hydraulic Conductivity (K) and Total Porosity (α) values, Test Moments significantly affected (p<0,05) Soil Bulk Density (ρb), Hydraulic Conductivity (K) and Total Porosity (α) values. There is a negative correlation between soil ρb and other parameters of soil physical property (α and K), because while the average of ρb decreased in soil mobilization and increased in the flowering phase of maize, the averages of K and α increased in the mobilization and decreased in the flowering phase of the maize, suggesting that, the decrease of the soil bulk density by the mobilization, improves the soil porosity and soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil α significantly affected maize yield (p <0.05) therefore, maize sown at the beginning of April (ES1) had a lower yield than maize sown at mid-April (ES2 ; ES3 and ES4), because it obtained a lower (p <0,05) average value of soil α (ES1 = 54,4 ± 6,6%) than in other sowing dates (ES2=61,1±3,1% ; ES3=60,8±4,0% and ES4=61,1±2,7%).

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Page publiée le 24 juin 2020