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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Portugal → Resilient arthropods : Buthus scorpions as a model to undestand the role of past and future climatic changes on Iberian Biodiversity

Universidade do Porto (2017)

Resilient arthropods : Buthus scorpions as a model to undestand the role of past and future climatic changes on Iberian Biodiversity

Reis de Sousa Pedro

Titre : Resilient arthropods : Buthus scorpions as a model to undestand the role of past and future climatic changes on Iberian Biodiversity

Auteur : Reis de Sousa Pedro

Université de soutenance : Universidade do Porto

Grade : Doutoral em Biodiversidade, Genética e Evolução 2017

Résumé partiel
The Mediterranean region (Med) is one of Earth’s largest Biodiversity hotspots, with a high number of plant endemics. This biological richness is a consequence of the Mediterranean complex geography, including several long Peninsulas and high Mountains, and complex geological history. The Med is the western remnant of an older Tethys Ocean entrapped between the African and Eurasian tectonic plates. The climate in the Mediterranean area remained mildly and subtropical, and mostly stable, during the Miocene. It changed around 3.2 Ma during the Upper Pliocene and assumed its present configuration, which ranges from temperate to arid, but even the former is characterized by strong annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation (i.e. Mediterranean climate). The Pleistocene Glaciations did mark a departure from the Mediterranean climate. These climatic changes, together with the paleogeological changes, had a strong impact on the Mediterranean Biodiversity and left a lasting genetic footprint. At the end of the Pleistocene, in the Eastern Mediterranean area, started one of the earliest areas of human civilization, which slowly expanded throughout the Med. The prolonged human presence has had a strong negative impact on its Biodiversity, as much of the available land better suited for sustaining Biodiversity was converted to agricultural use. All these factors converge to make the Mediterranean an area in urgent need of conservation, even more so because its eastern portion includes yet another important Biodiversity hotspot, the Irano-Anatolian. The Mediterranean region has also a high scorpion species’ diversity, albeit markedly different in composition from North to South. The southern Med is richer in species and genera number but not in the number of families, which further highlights the complex paleo-history of the area. The genus Buthus is a specious example of this diversity that managed to colonise the Iberian Peninsula, but is an otherwise North African genus that also reaches the Middle East. In Africa, Buthus range extends from the Mediterranean shore as far south as the Sahel and as far east as the Horn of Africa. Although Western Med Buthus genetic diversity was first studied more than a decade ago (in 2003), much remained unknown, even more so given the ten-fold increase in its species composition since the publication of the “ Catalog of the scorpions of the world (1758-1998)”. To tackle this fast pace of new species descriptions we present an update to the Buthus catalogue and gave some notes on the most important morphological characters used for Buthus species identification.

Mots clés  : Scorpiones ; scorpion ; Buthus ; Buthus species ; North Africa ; Western Mediterranean ; Eastern Mediterranean ; Iberian Peninsula ; Maghreb ; Morocco ; Ethiopia ; systematics ; taxonomy ; phylogeny ; phylogeography ; Maximum likelihood ; Bayesian inference ; species discovery ; species delimitation ; Miocene ; Messinian Salinity Crisis ; Pliocene ; Pleistocene ; Climate ; plate tectonics ; vicariance ; dispersal through water

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Page publiée le 14 avril 2020