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Universidade de Aveiro (2012)

Soluções para a construção de habitação em adobe a custos controlados

Carvalho, Ricardo Marinho de

Titre : Soluções para a construção de habitação em adobe a custos controlados

Auteur : Carvalho, Ricardo Marinho de

Université de soutenance : Universidade de Aveiro

Grade : Doutoramento em Engenharia Civil 2012

Recent data show that deforestation in the caatinga, one of the main Brazilian biomes, is reaching alarming levels, especially due to its vulnerability and strong tendency towards desertification. Four municipalities out of the ten that deforested caatinga the most are in Ceará, according to the Ministry of the Environment. Studies show that among the main causes of deforestation is the use of native land for firewood and coal, above all for burning bricks in illegal factories. Aiming to study the issue of applicability of sustainable constructions in Northeastern Brazil, this paper carries out a detailed survey of adobe construction works in the region, especially in the state that contributed the most to deforestation. Therefore, extensive research was conducted in public collections, in addition to eight road expeditions between 2009 and 2011, totaling approximately 7,000 kilometers across the north and northeast regions of the state of Ceará. Land and adobe samples were collected in order to perform assays in laboratories of the Federal University of Ceará ; extensive photographic documentation was also undertaken and questionnaires were applied in fourteen municipalities. Data were gathered on several relevant aspects of this research, as follows : land composition ; granulometry ; drying processes of adobe ; mechanical resistance to compression ; and aspects pertaining to covering details, plaster traces and foundation details. The analysis of collected data allowed us to understand adobe construction in the region within its cultural context. This research may help maintain an environmentally, culturally and economically sustainable constructive system, through the search for a path to reassess possibilities for technical adaptations to typical houses in Ceará’s semi-arid region.


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