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Universidade do Algarve (2007)

Salt removing species. Phytoremediation technique for Uzbekistan

Hamidov, Ahmad

Titre : Salt removing species. Phytoremediation technique for Uzbekistan

Auteur : Hamidov, Ahmad

Université de soutenance : Universidade do Algarve

Grade : Mestrado, Gestão da Água e da Costa, 2007

Résumé
Conventional techniques, namely soil leaching and the use of enhancing fertilization are methods used to mitigate soil salinity and to increase the salt tolerance of agricultural crops grown in salt-affected soils. However, the intensive use of these techniques has also attracted public attention due to the environmental pollution caused and the contamination of groundwater resources. Recently, a new environmentally safe and clean remediation technique, whereby salt (ion) removing species are planted in the salt-affected soils, has been introduced to address salinity problems. The salt removal potential of Portulaca oleracea Golden Purslane and seven native naturally grown wild plants - Tamarix hispida, Apocynum lancifolium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Portulaca oleracea Green Purslane, Alhagi pseudalhagi, Karelinia caspia, and Chenopodium album have been evaluated under this study. The field experiments were carried out in the Khorezm Region, in the northwest of Uzbekistan, during the summer, the most sensitive period for salt-affected soils. Portulaca oleracea golden purslane was planted in two different salt-affected soils, one field with irrigation and one without irrigation. The harvest was twice, in the developing and seedling stages of Portulaca oleracea golden purslane. The results have revealed that no irrigation was required to remove the highest soil salts and to obtain the highest biomass in Portulaca oleracea golden purslane. The capillary rise from groundwater played a significant role in meeting the demand of plants for water, increasing plant transpiration. The highest salt accumulation varied from 496.6 up to 511.3 kg ha-1 in the developing and seedling phases of Portulaca oleracea, which eventually, removed about 16.8 % of the total soil salts, at a depth of 10 cm. The most efficient wild plant in removing salts from the soil was C.album. This plant removed 538.4 up to 596.6 kg ha-1 at a depth of 25 cm, in the developing and seedling stages, respectively. The study indicated that Portulaca oleracea golden purslane (higher amount of salts) and Chenopodium album (deeper salts extraction) could become potential species used to control and to combat salinity in the northern part of Uzbekistan and could also be integrated into cultivation/rotation programmes to remediate saline soils.

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