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Kyoto University (2013)

A study on genetic diversity of Egyptian native livestock

RAMADAN Sherif Ibrahim Ahmed

Titre : A study on genetic diversity of Egyptian native livestock

Auteur : RAMADAN Sherif Ibrahim Ahmed

Université de soutenance : Kyoto University

Grade : Doctoral thesis 2013

Résumé partiel
Genetic diversity is essential in optimizing both conservation and utilisation strategies for animal genetic resources. Local poultry breeds make up most of the world’s poultry genetic diversity, and are still very important in developing countries where they represent up to 95 percent of the total poultry population. Local Egyptian poultry breeds are highly adapted to harsh environmental conditions and thought to constitute genetic reservoirs. For instance, Fayoumi chicken breed can be seen as a unique breed from the viewpoint of disease resistance and Sinai chicken strain possesses superiority in heat tolerance. The development and increased focus on more efficient selection programmes have accelerated genetic improvement in a number of breeds. As a result, highly productive breeds have replaced local ones across the world. Moreover, intensive selection caused narrowing of genetic base and inbreeding which is associated with declines in both population fitness and disease resistance. This development has led to growing concerns about the erosion of genetic resources, as the genetic diversity of low productive local breeds is likely to contribute to current or future traits of interest and they are considered essential for maintaining future breeding options. The first problem for conservation is the lack of information, so the identification and genetic characterization of all breeds particularly local ones has high priority in the FAO global strategy. Information of poultry genetic resources is considered a useful model for studying conservation of genetic diversity in wild animal species. Therefore in this study, I evaluated the genetic diversity of Egyptian chickens and pigeons in order to apply this information for conservation purpose by using two different strategies. The first strategy (in chapter 2) was maximization of genetic diversity based on neutral microsatellites genetic markers while the second strategy (in chapter 3) was genetic improvement by low selective pressure based on functional gene polymorphisms.

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