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Université de Liège (2013)

Evolution géomorphologique du littoral occidental de la péninsule tingitane (Maroc)

El Abdellaoui, Jamal

Titre : Évolution géomorphologique du littoral occidental de la péninsule tingitane (Maroc)

Auteur : El Abdellaoui, Jamal

Etablissement de soutenance : Université de Liège

Grade : Doctorat en Sciences 2013

This work traces the geomorphological evolution of the western coast of the tingitane Peninsula (Morocco) in two time scales : the current scale and the Quaternary scale. Geomorphological characteristics have been identified and placed into their morphotectonic and/or morphodynamic contexts. To make our work more interesting, fruitful and realistic, we adopted an empirical approach. Firstly, we based our research on collection of data and analysis of available documents. Secondly, we made measurements, using appropriate techniques to answer specific questions, or to argue the hypotheses. It appears from this study, that the organization of geological units in a NNW-SSE direction has created a rugged shore, mainly in rocky cliff and pocket beaches on the Strait of Gibraltar coast, and a low sandy coast on the Atlantic coast. The geological and geomorphological quaternary history of Gibraltar Strait coast is characterized by a series of marine abrasion stepped and raised surfaces. The history of the Atlantic coast is rather marked by tectonic subsidence. This tectonic subsidence is manifested on the surface by a system of closed depressions (daya) arranged in a NNW-SSE axis, almost parallel to the orientation of geological units. The evolution of the geomorphological depressions is also controlled by the fluvio-marine action and wind activity. The last interglacial period is marked by two transgressive pulsations of eustatic origin. They were recorded at the marine terraces on both coasts. The second pulsation is aged at least 119.6 ± 2.3 ky. After the last interglacial, the central area of the Strait of Gibraltar was raised by an average of 8.1mm/100year from 117ky. The Ouljien was raised to a height of 13 to 16m. The Atlantic coast was stable at 117ky. Marine terraces are 5-6m high. The analysis shows that the current morphodynamics of the Atlantic coast are characterized by a barred beach geomorphology with a high spatio-temporal variability. It appears that a land wind plays a key role in the morphosedimentary evolution of backshore and foreshore. Indeed, the backshore develops, by negative retroaction, a geomorphology with a dune system to slow transport operated by land winds from the east. The foreshore, meanwhile, develops, by a positive retroaction, a system of bar and rip channels to counter a change in slope generated by the wind. On the one hand, risk analysis shows that the succession of anthropic changes at Tangier Bay has brooked the internal sediment balance. Erosion has affected both the sandy and rugged beaches of the eastern sector. The Atlantic coast doesn’t show signs of erosion, but it has a high vulnerability, because it evolves in a closed sedimentary system. On the other hand, the characteristic of a low open ocean coast facilitates the penetration of marine waters within the continent, especially the lower areas. Finally, a barred beach geomorphology creates problems of harbor silting and access disruption.

Mots-clés : Coast, geomorphology, tectonic, morphodynamic, erosion, risk.


Page publiée le 5 juillet 2020