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Politecnico di Milano (2019)

Sahara eco-houses. Un polo residenziale a Tamanrasset

CAVESTRI, GRETA

Titre : Sahara eco-houses. Un polo residenziale a Tamanrasset

Auteur : CAVESTRI, GRETA

Université de soutenance : Politecnico di Milano

Grade : Laurea Magistrale 2019

Résumé
The thesis deals with the problem of designing within a desert area, in extreme climatic conditions. The choice of a context in which anthropization is very complex, was carried out as a response on the basis of recent studies on desertification and the demographic increase of the planet. Demographic studies show that the world population is constantly growing, at 1.1% per year (from 1 million people in 1800 to 7 million in 2012). The desertification process, on the other hand, is a growing phenomenon. The UNCCD (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification) has estimated that 120,000 square kilometers each year are rendered sterile by desertification and that the phenomenon affects 40% of the earth’s surface. If on the one hand, therefore, the population is increasing, the geographical areas favorable to life are constantly decreasing. These two combined factors are leading to the development of peripheral areas with less favorable climatic conditions and to expand the settlements in increasingly less hospitable areas. The paper therefore presents itself as a challenge and aims to answer the following questions : “Is life in this environment possible in a comfortable place ? Can architecture make life comfortable in an inhospitable natural environment ? " The approach with which the theme is dealt with has not only the respect of the environment in a passive sense, but a design that brings to the fore the relationship with the climate considered in an active and proactive sense. As a place to develop the project, the Sahara desert was chosen, the largest hot desert in the world and with a greater neighboring area subject to desertification. The Sahara can be taken as an illustrative area of dry hot areas and as a fertile ground for experimenting with a bioclimatic approach that exploits natural energy resources and respects the surrounding environment as much as possible. propose a small residential pole, able to accommodate both the local population and tourists who want to discover the area. For the construction and location of the buildings, the various vernacular building technologies and the traditional materials available on site were studied and considered, in addition to the culture of local living.

Mots Clés  : progettazione bioclimatica ; progettazione aree desertiche

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