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University of Waterloo Canada (1993)

Rural-urban migration as a consequence of improved cookstove programmes in Senegal : a general equilibrium analysis

Kalhok, Peter Francis

Titre : Rural-urban migration as a consequence of improved cookstove programmes in Senegal : a general equilibrium analysis

Auteur : Kalhok, Peter Francis

Université de soutenance : University of Waterloo,

Grade : (M.A.) 1993.

Résumé
A central goal of energy and environmental policy in many developing countries has been to reduce the consumption of fuelwood by households through the introduction of more fuel-efficient "improved cookstoves". This thesis examines the reallocation of labour and income that occurs in an economy where improved cookstoves are adopted by rural and/or urban households. Since fuelwood is purchased predominantly in the form of charcoal by urban households and collected in the form of firewood by rural households, the impacts of improved cooking efficiencies differ between rural and urban areas. The labour released from the gathering of firewood enters the rural labour force, which depresses the rural wage rate ; the money saved from the purchase of charcoal in cities leads to a reduction in the urban cost-of-living. Harris and Todaro (1970) hypothesized that increases in wage disparity between rural and urban areas lead to rural-urban migration. By incorporating a modified Harris-Todaro model of migration into a general equilibrium model of Senegal, it is demonstrated that improved cooking efficiencies increase the disparity in real wages between rural and urban areas, and that this leads to increased rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration, in turn, leads to an increase in the number of charcoal consumers. When substitution elasticities are higher, less migration occurs, but reductions in fuelwood consumption are modest because of the increase in energy consumption which results from the improved efficiencies. In either case, improved cookstove programmes are found to be ineffective in reducing charcoal consumption, which is believed to be a significant contributor to deforestation in the Sahel.

Présentation (Amicus)

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