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University of Guelph Canada (1999)

Land issues and their implications for the development of peri-urban agriculture : the case of Maputo peri-urban Green Zones, Mozambique

Ahmed, Mohamed Abdulkadir.

Titre : Land issues and their implications for the development of peri-urban agriculture : the case of Maputo peri-urban Green Zones, Mozambique.

Auteur : Ahmed, Mohamed Abdulkadir

Université de soutenance : University of Guelph,

Grade : Master of Science (M.Sc.) 1999.

Urban and psi-urban agrkuhre occur in major cities of Mcan counffies as part of the informal -or. But most Afncan corntries systematidy discourage them by imp1ernenting a hostile policy enviroment such as eviction or harasmem. Mozambique in contrast is one of the féw Afncan countries that h.s recognised the importance of pni- urban agricufture in improviag food supply for Maputo city by establishing the Green Zone policy and the Green Zones Directorate (GZV) in the 1980s. This study investigates Maputo peri-wban Green Zones in its various aspects with the land issues as a major focus. Data coiiected in three case studies through (a) a wey questionnaire of 1 10 household heads and field observations ; and (b) govemment documents, statistics and Id newspapers, provides the basis for the isvestigati011, The assumptions adopted in this research are based on experiences of Afncan nations similar to Mozambique in terms of political turmoif, civil war and drought. The specific broad question kestigated is : S-mbzIzty of wh food qpij for Maputo : The mow fiom centrdpIcatnm to mmkt ecommies gffcctî irtsfitutiod regulàtion of Id use. Wibt tpe of fvadpoky is king cl ;eveIopd in pst-war Mozambique and wlwd will k the impact of Imd tuse changes on the peri-wban Green Zones of tk ci@ ? Answer to this broad question wm achieved by answering a number of more speafic research questions. The methodoiogy used to aâdnss these question are : (1) ex(ptlihing the historicdprpcfive wbich explains the background to the positive response of the government in estabiishing the Green Zones policy and the GZV, (2) stu&@ggowmment limdpolicies wbich investigates the legd fbwwork and hsthti ns imrolved in urban rad peri-dan land ; (3) sMveyricg the m-wbm fanners to get a clear pichne ofperi-dan fanners socio-economic data, exïsting pmduction typologies, land issues and th& problems in perfiorming thir @cultunl activities. Three diSiirent cstegories ofland tenure with four diffkrent production typologies exist in peR-dan Green Zones, each leadhg to different fomis of access, occupancy and title. The mode of acquisition ofthe nmjority of land bàng Wed has been acceJscd through spontaneous and informal means won &er idependence from Portugai in 1975 except for the Portuguese quin- This study asked some questions in different ways to capture various contradictions present in Green Zones area. It also found controversial fmdings in relation to land issues, reveaiing the presence ofa common denominator among peri-urbm fànners : nISemCIIIlty of teme d comp2ex:pracechnes to access Id fonnallyny Comtitutioaal and instinitional rcfonas happened since 1992 and are expected to happen The first redt has been the approvai of the New Land Policy in 1997, deaiing only with rural cornmunifies an4 the ongoing discussion on dan land administration and its expected revision in the near fimue that would introduce major alterations in urban and peri-urban land administration and ownership. Peri-urban agridture Green Zones has a vital role to play for the dan economy and for feeding the population of Maputo. It contriibutes more than 15% of the food supply of Maputo City. Key lindings consthte that peri-urban agriculture is an important strategy for peri-urbm household faod security. The research provides a complete pichire of the peri-urban Green Zones through three case studies and, institutions invohred and responsble for the Green Zones ara Fi, policy recommendatiom and suggestions for Mer research toward Maputo psi-urban Green Zones are discussed.

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